Theorist:
Plato

Plato.jpg
Theory:
Reality is spiritual in nature; Theory of Forms


Timeline:



Description:
Plato thought that reality lies not in concrete objects that we are aware through our senses but in the ideal, abstract forms that these objects represent. He contended that these ideal forms exist in a timeless dimension of pure abstract thought. The objects we sense are poor, transient, and imperfect copies of the "real" idea that exists in our minds. Plato reasoned that the head must be the of mind because it resembles a sphere, which he considered to be a perfect abstract form.
Mind and body interact with one another according to Plato but they are essentially different and the mind is superior to the body. Truth is found in our thoughts (via introspection) not through our senses (via observation). Plato thought that man has an individual soul chained to a material body. The soul is liberated at death. In the tenth book of The Republic, Plato states that the Proper purpose of the soul is justice. The just soul will be rewarded by God following death. Suffering in life is the result of the evil one did in a prior existence. After man's death, the soul chooses its future body and destiny. "The gods are blameless."
Plato believed that justice is the most important virtue.


Major Works:
Apology
Charmides, or Temperance Written 380 B.C.E
Cratylus Written 360 B.C.E
Critias Written 360 B.C.E
Crito Written 360 B.C.E
Euthydemus Written 380 B.C.E
Euthyphro Written 380 B.C.E
Gorgias Written 380 B.C.E
Ion Written 380 B.C.E
Laches, or Courage Written 380 B.C.E
Laws Written 360 B.C.E
Lysis, or Friendship Written 380 B.C.E
Meno Written 380 B.C.E
Parmenides Written 370 B.C.E
Phaedo Written 360 B.C.E
Phaedrus Written 360 B.C.E
Philebus Written 360 B.C.E
Protagoras Written 380 B.C.E
The Republic Written 360 B.C.E
The Seventh Letter Written 360 B.C.E
Sophist Written 360 B.C.E
Statesman Written 360 B.C.E