Theorist: Robert Gagne 1916-2002

Theory: Constructivist - Best know for "Conditions of Learning", which identified the mental conditions of learning. Major contributor to the systematic approach to instructional design. His learning theory is summarized as The Gagne Assumption - for each of the different types of learning (learning goals) that exist, different instructional conditions are required. Early work was inspired by behaviorism. Later, he was considered to be an experimental psychologist.

Timeline: "Conditions of Learning" was published in 1965.

Description: Learning theory is summarized as The Gagne Assumption and consists of:
Eight conditions of learning - the learner must master each step before reaching the next - 1. Signal learning, 2. Stimulus-response learning, 3. Chaining, 4. Verbal association, 5. Discrimination learning, 6. Concept learning, 7. Rule learning, 8. Problem solving
Five types of learning - Learning is similar to processing. It is sequential and builds on prior knowledge. 1. Verbal Information, 2. Intellectual Skills, 3. Cognitive Strategies, 4. Attitudes, 5. Motor Skills
Nine events of instruction - these events apply to each of the 5 types of learning, not necessarily in the same order for each type - 1. Gaining Attention, 2. Informing learners of objectives, 3.Stimulating recall of prior learning, 4. Presenting the stimulus, 5. Providing learning guidance, 6. Eliciting performance, 7. Providing feedback, 8. Assessing performance, 9. Enhancing retention and transfer
Transfer of learning is a key concept in Gagne's instructional design. Gagne's different learning strategies: address different characteristics, give individual feedback, provide job performance aids, review training content, and conduct periodic evaluations of students in the work setting.

Major Works: "Conditions of Learning" was published in 1965. The Conditions of Learning and Theory of Instruction (1965).

Learning Transfer: hierarchy, prerequisites, vertical transfer (knowlege of a previous topic is essential to acquire new knowledge), small-to-large learning, part-to-whole Example: must learn simple math skills (addition, subtraction) before balancing a checkbook