Howard Gardner


Multiple Intelligences


Current Efforts Era


The Theory of Multiple Intelligences proposes that there are a number of separate forms of intelligence that each individual possesses in varying degrees.
Gardner proposes seven primary forms of intelligence:
  1. Linguistic
  2. Musical
  3. Logical-mathematical
  4. Spatial
  5. Body-kinesthetic
  6. Intrapersonal (e.g., insight, metacognition)
  7. Interpersonal (e.g., social skills).
According to Gardner, the implication of the theory is that learning/teaching should focus on the particular intelligences of each person. For example, if an individual has strong spatial or musical intelligences, they should be encouraged to develop these abilities. Gardner points out that the different intelligences represent not only different content domains but also learning modalities. A further implication of the theory is that assessment of abilities should measure all forms of intelligence, not just linguistic and logical-mathematical.

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